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Virginia is a "Little Miller Act" jurisdiction, meaning that it requires payment protection bonds on state and local construction projects similar to the Federal Miller Act bond. Virginia, through the Public Procurement Act, requires a payment bond to protect contractors and suppliers on any project over $500,000, except for road and transportation projects where a payment bond is required for any project over $250,000.

Like the federal act, a supplier or contractor in Virginia who is not a direct contractor with the prime contractor (who posts the bond) has 90 days to notify the prime contractor by certified mail return receipt. In either case, whether notice is required or not, the contractor/supplier may not file suit before 90 days have elapsed since the last work has been done or materials have been delivered, but must file suit within one year of the day the last work was performed or materials were furnished. In other words, there is a window for a Claimant to file suit from 90 days through 1 year after the last date of furnishing materialor labor to a project. The standard of proof for a material supplier is only that it furnished the material with a good-faith belief that it was to be used on the bonded project. The supplier is not required to prove that the material is part of the constructed project or even delivered to the project (as on a Mechanic's Lien).

Suitmust be brought in the Circuit Court of the city or county where the project is located. Unlike the federal rules, Virginia sureties are not held to the same financial standards, so payment issues occasionally arise. Remember that the Virginia "Little Miller Act" applies to state, city, county, school board, redevelopment and housing authority, public college and mixed public/private projects. The rise in public-private venture projects covered by the Virginia Public Procurement Act is an often overlooked source of payment bond protection. Although projects over $500,000 are required to post payment bonds, there is no bar for posting on smaller projects. Some localities and agencies customarily require bonds on projects smaller than $500,000.

Like the federal act, only a direct contractor/supplier to the prime or its subcontractor is covered by the payment bond. Payment bonds are powerful sources of payment because they are fully liable for claims even when the defaulting contractor has been fully paid by the government or prime tier contractor.

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Clomiphene or tamoxifen for pct post-menopausal or menopausal breast cancer; tamoxifen vs. placebo Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00440186 The first of a two-part series on what the city's new zoning code might entail for the city's apartment buildings. It's about to get a lot harder for people in Portland to build their dream homes. Starting Oct. 1, the city's zoning code will require apartment buildings have a minimum of eight parking spaces and no more than four units with ground floor retail, among other zoning regulations. Residents who work in the city say they are worried about the new regulation -- and that, in fact, it's already having some unintended consequences. "It's a pretty large number of people. We really are in the thick of it," said Joe Staley, executive director Tretinoin cream canada price of the Portland Housing Bureau. "We have a lot of units that are really overstretched." The new requirements will also apply to apartment buildings in multi-family developments that have already been approved by the city. Staley said the increase in density would make it tougher for developers to build, but he pointed some encouraging statistics to show the new rules would ultimately increase the demand for apartments overall. "Our apartment vacancy rate is below 3 percent, we have a lot of new construction that started in 2014," Staley said. "Our median is going up. So as an owner, I don't think there is as much of a concern." Portland, like most big cities, is seeing an overall increase in the amount of housing units created each year. Between 2002 and 2012, Portland's rental housing stock went up 30 percent. The new rules should help meet city goals of providing housing to the most affordable letrozole vs clomiphene citrate ovulation induction segment of Portlanders, Staley said. "We have some really great developments coming in, and if they're going to start offering market-rate housing, then they are going to have a lot of parking, so it helps support housing affordability and also the market-rate housing," Staley said. The new measures are part of the city's latest "housing first" strategy, Staley added. It's designed to target new housing developments that are in the process of being developed, and are more likely to create units for low-income Portlanders, Staley said. "It means that we have to policies are in front of us," Staley said. "This is one way to achieve them." The goal of strategy is to give low-income people housing they can afford and to get more of them consider living in Portland, he said. The new regulations will apply only to new apartments, and not housing for people over the age of 65 like one at 5th and Williams. The new regulations will be enforced through parking management contracts. Under the new rules, developers will be able to offer parking for their low-income apartments in lieu of building more retail in them. The city estimates that parking could replace about 1 percent of an apartment's retail space. That's up to 1,500 parking spaces. In the early '90s, a similar ordinance was passed for multi-family developments, Staley said, but those new rules weren't made enforceable until a few years later. Portland's zoning code doesn't cover single family homes generics pharmacy price list of medicines and townhouses, which are typically built with smaller lot sizes than apartments.

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